Theoretical framework & Researchers: Interactive ways of reading
English Language Reading
IP: Knowledge void: Until now, there has been little research available in the field of second language reading related to ESL vocabulary training and acquisition.
SP: why knowledge void
2- Purpose of the study & Statement of the research problem (Q form):
- dependent variables: learning vocabulary
- independent variable: context clues, structural analysis of words (roots, prefixes, suffixes), and dictionary use.
4- Statement of the Hypotheses:
- there is no significant statistical difference in vocabulary development as a result of the use of context clues in the of level C students' English classes..
5- Rationale of the study:
6- Literature review:
3 experimental groups: 3 sections of level C students at USJ.
- 1 section used context clues (7 males and 8 females)
- 1 section used structural analysis of words (roots, prefixes, suffixes) (8 males and 7 females)
- 1 section used the dictionary (8 males and 9 females)
All subjects from the same socio-economic background.
5 short stories read in the same order by the 3 classes.
c- Study Design: Experimental design- 3 experimental groups- pre-test post-test- matched t-test, 3-way Anova, comparing means and standard deviations.
Prior to the introduction and instruction of the short story unit, all classes were given the same vocabulary pre-test that consisted of 60 vocabulary words found in the 5 stories.
The test format consisted of 6 parts:
- part 1: 10 sentences requiring the student to identify the underlined word from context.
- part 2: fill in the blank/cloze (10 sentences)
- part 3: True or false that stated the definition of each word.
- part 4: Matching selection (10 sentences)
- part 5: Define 5 words
- part 6: 15 question multiple choice.
Students were given a score on the test, but the words and their meanings were not discussed.
Then the short story unit started. All classes read the same 5 short stories in the same order. reading- same lists of vocab words. different ways of explaining them. then student the narrative elements of each story + discuss the stories. quizzes after each story about reading comprehension + a section for vocabulary.
After the short story unit ended, students were given the vocabulary post-test (same as pre-test) to determine their long-term ability to recall the word meanings. Tests were scored and reviewed.
Period of time: 3 months, 4 times a week
Mean gains of the test scores were compared using a matched t-test for each group and a 3-way Anova (analysis of variance- Scheffé) for the 3 groups together in order to determine the significance of the difference if any.
10- Conclusions, limitations, and implications